(1) Quartz electronic watch


Quartz electronic watches, also known as third-generation electronic watches, use a quartz resonator as the time reference and display the time with hands, also known as analog electronic watches.

The third-generation quartz electronic watch is powered by silver oxide battery or mercury battery, uses a rod or tuning fork-shaped quartz oscillator as the time reference, uses a medium- to large-scale semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) with continuous frequency division to obtain the basic time unit, and then uses a miniature stepper motor as the transducer to display the hour, minute and second through a (mechanical) gear transmission system. The daily error accuracy of quartz electronic watch can be controlled at ±0.2 seconds, and the annual cumulative error does not exceed ±12~60 seconds.

The indispensable conditions for the development of the third-generation quartz pointer-type electronic watch are: a precise and stable quartz oscillator, a high-performance integrated circuit (IC) and an electric-mechanical converter (stepper motor) and a small high-energy battery capable of providing stable discharge characteristics.

(2) Solar electronic watch


Solar cells are made using silicon wafers of extremely high purity, which are specially treated to form two extremely thin layers that convert light energy into photocurrent and photovoltage when sunlight or light hits the surface of the wafer. The current flows from the high-voltage solar cell to the low-voltage watch battery and is charged. To prevent the solar cell from flowing into the watch at too high a voltage, there are internal diodes and resistors that act as buffers to protect the watch battery and its life.

(3) Hand-wound quartz


The SpringDrive technology released by the Japanese SElKO Group in 1998 is in fact identical to the mechanical watch in most of its structure, but the core of the mechanical watch, the escapement, uses the structure of a quartz oscillator, so some people think that it should be a quartz watch. The quartz oscillator and the magnetic carriage act as the “brakes” on the SpringDrive, and the power source of the chronograph is still from the barrel. Because the quartz oscillator is the core of the frequency, it is considered a mechanical watch, but it has a high accuracy of +-15 seconds per month, which is not as good as a mechanical watch.

(4) Automatic quartz electronic watch


It is a combination of an automatic watch and a quartz watch. Its power source comes from the rotation of the rotor inside the watch driven by the swing of the wearer’s arm, and the kinetic energy generated pushes the internal microelectric motor into energy to provide sufficient power for the quartz device inside the watch, and the excess power is stored in a micro capacitor. The excess power is then stored in a micro-capacitor. This design, which uses mechanical energy to convert into electrical energy, can last for tens of days when fully charged, thanks to the continuous improvement of today’s technology.

Automatic quartz watches combine the ease of winding of an automatic watch with the precision of a quartz watch, and are more environmentally friendly as they do not require a battery, and more and more brands are now making these watches.

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